Automated People Mover

Automated People Mover (APM) and Monorail systems are elevated and driverless transportation systems with a dedicated right of way and belong to the group of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems. As experienced Automated People Mover (APM) planners and experts for engineering and design, we look forward to assisting you with feasibility studies, system planning and design, tender specifications, design reviews, and system acceptance.

The technology range for Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) is wide, beginning with monorails (and/or suspension railways, atmospheric railways) which run on or below a single guideway beam to Automated People Mover (APM) systems up to Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems which both normally run in a concrete guideway trough. Whereas elevated monorail systems are often used in urban environments for public passenger transport or in so called megaproject environments, Automated People Movers (APMs) are often used as airport connector and/or feeder systems. In general, Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) can be designed train based or single vehicle based. Both vehicle designs can be self-propelled (active vehicles) or cable-propelled (passive vehicles). Train based transportation systems such as monorails and APMs can be operated in shuttle, bypass, or pinched loop mode. The pinched loop mode allows for multiple trains running on one guideway track or lane. Single vehicle-based systems such as PRT normally operate in a circular continuous movement mode at very low headways.

In general, single vehicle-based systems are best suited for complex track alignments with a high number of intermediate stations but have limitations in transport capacity (max. 4.000 pphpd) and travel speed (max. 10 m/s), whereas train-based systems are perfect solutions for simple point-to-point connections with several intermediate stations and allow for system speeds up to 22 m/s.

Below you can find an excerpt of our Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) project references:

South-west line Graz | Austria

Contract: Feasibility study, planning

Technology: Automated People Mover (APM), monorail, Automated Gudeway Transit (AGT)

Customer: Holding Graz Kommunale Dienstleistungen GmbH

Duration: 2011 – 2012


The Automated People Mover (APM) and monorail feasibility study for the city of Graz contains the development of a new southwest local public passenger transport line and the integration of it into the city’s existing public transport network. The focus lies on driverless, elevated and guided transport solutions (Automated Guideway Transit (AGT)) which can be operated totally independent of the motorized individual traffic.


The following topics were addressed in the feasibility study:

  • Examination of the starting position incl. determination of the investigation areas, definition of the planning basis and the goals
  • Analysis of the framework conditions incl. description of the existing public transport network and the traffic related development potential for urban areas
  • Examination of possible track alignments and station locations
  • Creation of a passenger flow and ridership analysis and determination of the system performance parameters
  • Analysis of possible system technologies for an elevated, fully automated operation incl. illustration of the typical system boundaries and fields of application
  • Development of system requirements followed by a system evaluation and recommendation
  • Execution of system calculations and design incl. station and maintenance facilities, guideway, vehicles, and power distribution
  • Visualization of stations und guideway incl. vehicles (renderings)
  • Estimation of the system investment and operation & maintenance costs

Oakland Airport APM Connector | USA

Contract: Consulting

Technology: Automated People Mover (APM)

Customer: Siemens AG Austria

Duration: 2014 – 2015


Oakland Airport Connector APM

The project incorporates the Operation & Maintenance (O&M) manual review for BART’s Oakland Airport Connector (OAC) which has been operating since end of 2014.

The Oakland Airport Connector (OAC) links BART’s Coliseum Station with the Oakland International Airport (USA) via a mostly elevated Automated People Mover (APM) system along Hegenberger Avenue. Trains leave every four to five minutes between the Airport and BART stations, replacing the AirBART bus system. Like the “AirTrain” at the San Francisco International Airport, Oakland got a state-of-the-art train-to-plane connection. The Automated People Mover (APM) system is an integral part of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) transport association.


The O&M manual includes the following documents:

  • System safety requirements
  • System functional description
  • System operation
  • Preventive maintenance
  • Corrective maintenance
  • Troubleshooting manual

Automated Guideway Transit strategy

Contract: Consulting

Technology: Automated Gudeway Transit (AGT)

Customer: Manufacturer of public transport systems

Duration: 2012 – 2013


The Automated People Mover (APM) and monorail feasibility study for the city of Graz contains the development of a new southwest local public passenger transport line and the integration of it into the city’s existing public transport network. The focus lies on driverless, elevated and guided transport solutions (Automated Guideway Transit (AGT)) which can be operated totally independent of the motorized individual traffic.


The strategy consulting included the following topics, which have been summarized in a comprehensive report:

  • Execution of a technology- and competitor analysis
  • Execution of a customer benefit analysis and evaluation of the competitive position
  • Analysis of the cost structure and execution of a price benchmark
  • Evaluation of the product portfolio and demonstration of potentials for product enhancement
  • Definition of the product strategy incl. USPs
  • Creation of a market analysis and development of the market strategy incl. market segmentation, market data, market drivers, market success factors, market cultivation, market enhancement potential
  • Execution of a SWOT analysis
  • Development of new business models incl. added value analysis, company group synergies, “make or buy” strategies
  • Implementation of a sales organization model
  • Development of project finance models

New mobility forms for passenger factory traffic | Germany

Contract: Feasibility study

Technology: E-bus, Autonomous Vehicles, Intermediary Transport Systems (Bus-Tram), Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) such as Monorail, Automated People Mover (APM), Maglev, Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)

Customer: Private company (confidential)

Duration: 2018


The factory traffic on the company premises currently takes place exclusively with diesel buses. The aim of the feasibility study is to identify environmentally friendly and promising forms of mobility for factory traffic and to create new transport concepts for the plant location.

Mobility forms for fine and primary distribution are evaluated based on site-specific and traffic-related criteria. Furthermore, the connection potentials to public transport, possible user groups and possible infrastructural restrictions are examined. Based on the findings, various alignment studies are conducted and compared.

The first step is to focus on internal mobility for people. Subsequently, the connection to the public transport system is examined before the adaptation of the means of transport for the internal freight transport is included in the investigations. Because in addition to the high number of passenger movements, a significant freight traffic is available at the location.

Currently, most factory workers come by car. The public transport and bicycle traffic shares are low. Thus, many parking lots are required, which are provided by several parking garages. The parking garages regularly reach their capacity limits at peak times in the mornings and evenings. This creates traffic congestion during the shift change times at the access and exit roads of the plant area.

The study delivers the groundwork for the establishment of a new transport infrastructure to encourage employees to use public transport. The aim is to significantly change the modal split and increase the share of public transport to at least 25%. In addition, the traffic routes within the factory premises are to be relieved of sustained passenger and freight traffic.


The following topics were addressed in the feasibility study:

  • Analysis of the project and local conditions
  • Creation of a traffic demand analysis
  • Comparison and evaluation of alternative modes of local public transport
  • Investigation and evaluation of traffic route concepts
  • Development of concepts for combined passenger and freight transport
  • Selection and dimension of selected local passenger transport technologies
  • Creation of layout plans and longitudinal sections
  • Analysis of critical environmental influences
  • Estimation of investment and operating costs
  • Development of a realization schedule
  • Conduction of a cost / benefit analysis
  • Presentation of the USPs

Passenger Transport System (PTS) concept study for airport | Germany

Contract: Feasibility study, consulting, planning

Technology: E-bus, Automated People Mover (APM), Maglev, Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), Cable Car

Customer: Public company (confidential)

Duration: 2019 – ongoing


The airport’s master plan contains to connect the various airport districts to the terminals via a road-independent passenger transport system (PTS).


The following topics have been addressed in the feasibility study:

  • Definition of the service level criteria
  • Definition of activity centers and connection points
  • Performing a passenger potential analysis
  • Presentation of possible system technologies and variants
  • Evaluation of possible alignment options including operation simulations
  • Calculation of investment and operating costs
  • Development of an evaluation matrix for system selection
  • System, alignment and station planning
  • Presentation of the legal planning framework
  • Development of implementation roadmap incl. time scheduling
  • Investigation of funding opportunities
  • Presentation of possible operational management concepts
  • Implementation of economic efficiency calculations
  • Pointing out of further steps